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No.50
Science, No.50  Nov. 15, 2018

New Developments in Albatross Conservation—Using biologging to elucidate behavior in the ocean

Watanuki Yutaka, Professor, School of Fisheries Science, Hokkaido University

The albatross is a group of birds at high risk of extinction. The reasons for this are thought to include a decreased survival rate of parent birds due to bycatching during fishing. To date, the research of incidental by-catch risk and the evaluation of the efficiency of by-catch mitigation techniques relied on observations from boats. Data obtained in this way however contains bias. Biologging can be used to collect useful data for albatross conservation, such as an overlap of the distribution of albatross and fishing grounds, the fishing boat following behavior of albatross, and the dynamics of wintering areas. 1.Use of biologging The study of seabird behavior on the ocean has advanced rapidly thanks to biologging: field research techniques to collect information of the location and behavior of individual animals by attaching a small data recording device known as a “data logger.” Some devices ... ... [Read more]

No.50
Science, No.50  Nov. 13, 2018

The Conservation of Endangered Albatross Species

At one time, Short-tailed Albatrosses formed large breeding colonies on Torishima in the Izu Islands and in the Ogasawara Islands, in the Daito Islands, the Senkaku Islands, and other islands near Tai-wan. Due to the collection of feathers, for which there was high foreign demand, from the mid-Meiji period (1868–1912) these albatrosses were overhunted, and in 1949 it was reported that they were extinct. In 1951, however, they were rediscovered when around ten birds were found to have survived on Torishima. Following this, in 1954 Japan established a national Wildlife Protection Area that covered the whole of Torishima (453 ha); in 1958, the short-tailed albatross was designated a national Natural Monument; and in 1962, it was promoted to a Special Natural Monument. Additionally, in 1965 the whole of Torishima was designated a Natural Monument (Natural Protected Area) in its capacity as a breeding site, ... ... [Read more]

No.50
Science, No.50  Nov. 12, 2018

The Question of Plutonium Management (II): Protect Energy Choices—It is essential to develop fast breeder reactors (FBR)

Key Points Japanese plutonium is difficult to convert into atomic bombs It is urgently necessary to build a system that makes full use of plutonium as fuel China and Russia are being proactive regarding fast breeder reactors to secure resources There is an activity that involves collecting gold and rare metals from used mobile phones. A variety of metals and semiconductors are used for mobile phones and include a small quantity of toxic substances. They are simply rubbish if they are thrown away as they are. But if you extract gold from them in order to classify them into metals and plastics, you can reduce the quantity of rubbish. This is called urban mining. In Japan, the gold extracted will be utilized for the medals for the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2020. The fuel that has generated a large quantity of electricity ... ... [Read more]

No.50
Science, Discussions, No.50  Oct. 16, 2018

Issues Concerning the Paris Agreement on Global Warming: Limitations of Negative Emissions Dependence — Make Zero Emissions the Guiding Principle

< Key Points > It is apparent that the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) submitted by member countries will not be enough to reach the 2 degree target Technologies and feasibility for massive negative emissions are unproven It is effective to accumulate technologies for zero emissions in each sector The Paris Agreement, a new framework of global warming prevention, was adopted at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was held in Paris in December 2015. The Parties agreed to keep the average global temperature rise well below 2˚C above pre-industrial levels (the Two-Degree Goal), keeping it in mind to do our best to keep the rise less than 1.5˚C, and realize zero net emissions by balancing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions with negative emissions in the second half of this century. All countries and regions ... ... [Read more]

No.50
Science, No.50  Oct. 12, 2018

The Question of Plutonium Management: Now is the Time to Establish New International Norms and Standards — Collaborative Management and Disposal of Surplus Materials

< Key Points > Stockpiles of plutonium for non-military purposes have increased globally It is necessary to strengthen the international management guidelines and set an upper limit on stockpiles It is essential to review reprocessing policies to reduce stockpiles On July 17, 2018, the Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy reached its thirty-year expiration and was automatically extended. On the same day, the Strategic Energy Plan was approved at a cabinet meeting and making efforts to reduce the quantity of possessed plutonium was specified for the first time. What is the fundamental issue behind this development? The issue of stockpiles is often considered a mistake in nuclear energy policy. However, it is imperative to regard it as a global security issue. I will explore solutions to this ... ... [Read more]

No.42
No.42, Science  Dec. 26, 2017

RIKEN: The 100th Anniversary of a Major Research Organization of Japan ― The Day the 113th Element Was Born

December 1, 2016. On this day, a press conference took place in a Fukuoka city hotel that deserves to go down in the history of science in Japan. The day before, at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (known as RIKEN) in Wako, Saitama Prefecture, the acceptance of an official name for a new chemical element artificially created in Japan was announced. Its name was nihonium, its symbol Nh, and its atomic number 113. The periodic table is an organizational system for the elements, and is to science what the alphabet is to the English language. But until recently, the elements that fill the table were all officially discovered in the countries of Europe and North America, and none in Japan. In fact, in 1908 a Japanese had discovered the forty-third element and proposed the name nipponium for it. The fourth president of ... ... [Read more]

No.41
No.41, Science, Discussions  Nov. 13, 2017

Dialogue: The fundamental bases for the Japanese people To the fundamental bases for the Japanese people ― The possibility of initiatives for integrating archaeology with anthropology

  Editorial staff: This special feature discusses research on the lives of ancient people beyond the boundaries of study areas, with a focus on the time from the Jomon period to the Kofun (ancient tomb) period. Please tell us what you think of the time from the Jomon period to the Kofun period. Shinoda Kenichi: Genome information shows that the genetic structure of modern-day Japanese was more strongly influenced by the immigrant Yayoi people who came to Japan from Korea and China than by the Jomon people, who constituted the fundamental bases for the Japanese people. It seems that because the people from the Korean and Chinese continents were agricultural people, they had a strong ability to increase the population. Anthropological studies on the Jomon and Yayoi periods have revealed that modern-day Japanese living on the main island of Japan have many genes derived ... ... [Read more]

No.41
No.41, Science  Oct. 26, 2017

Society and Science on iPS Cells ― Think about the next decade with a focus on the ethical, legal and social issues

In 2006, a research team led by Professor Yamanaka Shinya at Kyoto University reported that it had generated iPS cells in mice. The following year, the team reported that iPS cells could be generated in human beings as well. Ten years have passed since then. What has happened in the ten years following the first generation of iPS cells? This special feature looks at the progress of the research with a focus on the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI). This paper organizes ELSI in order so that it can be referred to by readers. Introduction Japanese regenerative medicine has seen many changes since a research team led by Professor Yamanaka Shinya at Kyoto University first generated iPS cells. The biggest change is that the world’s first-ever clinical research using iPS cells derived from patients was conducted, and that clinical research using other people’s ... ... [Read more]

No.36
No.36, Science, Discussions  Dec. 26, 2016

Interview: Artificial Intelligence

  Professor Sakura Osamu (left) had an interview with Professor Nishigaki Toru about the artificial intelligence (AI) on September 2, 2016, at the Office of the Dean of the University of Tokyo Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies.   Professor Sakura (hereinafter “Sakura”): First, I would like you to give a brief self-introduction. I have just read your book entitled Big Data and Artificial Intelligence: Gain Insights into Their Possibilities and Traps, which you published in July 2016 through Chuokoron-Shinsha Inc. In this book, you discuss the cultural and social background behind artificial intelligence (AI), with relation to recent big data and singularity. I found it very interesting. I am remembering the excellent impression I got from reading your book for general readers entitled AI: The Concepts Behind Artificial Intelligence, which you first published in 1988 through Kodansha Ltd. Big Data and Artificial Intelligence came ... ... [Read more]

No.30
No.30, Science  Feb. 11, 2016

From the Subaru Telescope to TMT

KASHIKAWA Nobunari, Associate Professor, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

It has been fifteen years since the Subaru Telescope began operation. It stands as a symbol of the technology on which Japan prides itself. The telescope has been used to observe a wide range of astronomical objets throughout the universe, from the solar system to distant galaxies more than 10 billion light years away, and has produced a multitude of achievements. The Subaru Telescope has made a number of findings about the universe, and at the same time has presented us with many new questions. We have a boundless curiosity to peer into the unknown, and this pure desire to know more has driven us to reach even higher and build a new larger telescope. In this article, we introduce the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope) that is currently being constructed and some of the new doors to the universe that it will open.... [Read more]